Approaches in Psychology
Operant Conditioning is a process of learning whereby the likelihood of a particular behaviour being repeated is determined by the consequences of previous occurences of the behaviour. Initially the behaviour occurs by chance and is followed by either reinforcements, punishments or neutral consequences. Reinforcements increase the frequency of the behaviour being repeated, punishments decrease the frequency and neutral consequences have no effect.
Published in Behaviourism
Classical conditioning involves the transfer of an established physiological response to a stimulus to another stimulus that does not normally produce the response, by repeated pairings of the new stimulus with a stimulus that already produces the response. After a number of such pairings, the previously neutral stimulus will produce the response when presented alone.